Stiff-person syndrome, also known as stiff-man syndrome, is a rare neurologic disorder of unclear cause characterized by progressive muscular rigidity and stiffness. The stiffness primarily affects the truncal muscles and is superimposed by spasms, resulting in postural deformities. Chronic pain, impaired mobility, and lumbar hyperlordosis are common symptoms. SPS occurs in about one in a million people and is most commonly found in middle-aged people. A small minority of patients have the paraneoplastic variety of the condition. Variants of the condition, such as stiff-limb syndrome which primarily affects a specific limb, are often seen. SPS was first described in 1956. Diagnostic criteria were proposed in the 1960s and refined two decades later. In the 1990s and 2000s the roles of antibodies in the condition became clearer. SPS patients generally have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies, which seldom occur in the general population.
Satoyoshi syndrome - Satoyoshi syndrome, also known as Komura-Guerri syndrome, is a rare progressive disorder of presumed autoimmune cause, characterized by painful muscle spasms, alopecia, diarrhea, endocrinopathy with amenorrhoea and secondary skeletal abnormalities.
Hyperekplexia - Hyperekplexia is a very rare neurologic disorder, classically characterised by a pronounced startle responses to tactile or acoustic stimuli and an ensuing period of hypertonia. The hypertonia may be predominantly truncal, attenuated during sleep, or less prominent after one year of age.
Extrapyramidal and movement disorders